I cannot explain these poetical forms without, talking about a bit of the history of the Indian Subcontinent. The Ghazals, Rubais, and Nazm had their origins in Persian (erstwhile Iran-Iraq). With the invasion of the Indian Sub-continent by the Mughal Emperors, the poetical forms from Persia, reached Indian shores. By 1700s several poets of Indian Birth had started writing in rubais, and Ghazals. Indian Ghazals were heavily influenced by an Islamic religious offshoot called “Sufism”. Sufism unlike their Arabic counterparts gave emphasis on singing and dancing. For them God was an experience, not a set of rules to be followed.Over a period of a century, Indian and Pakistani Ghazals, attained a distinct characteristics.
After the 11 century, The Persians refined their Rubais and developed it separately from their counterparts found in the Indian sub-continent. The Persian Rubais were quatrains. The most popular of them in the western world is the “Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam”.It’s hard for me to understand a Rubai, since it uses lots of Persian words.
The poems written in the Indian-subcontinent were of two basic genres: Nazm and Ghazal.Nazm is more like a story telling. It has only one subject matter. it is less restrictive than Ghazal can contain philosophical, romance, love and similar themes.and here I have translated a Nazm in Hindi by Pakistani Poet Zeeshan Sahil
In India, Mirza Ghalib and his counterparts first wrote their poems in the Persian language. Later poets started writing in poems in Urdu Poetry (a language which is quite similar to Hindi, but it used mostly by Muslims and has a Persio-Arabic script).Ghazal is a form with rhyming couplets and a refrain. Ghazals are usually about both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. A Ghazal contains 4-5 sher (couplet). Every sher will have the same meter and rhyme scheme, but can have different subject matter. Couplets may or may not have same thought. Ghazal usually have a strict rhyme and rhythm structure. Ghazals are usually much shorter than a Nazm. A sher can stand on its own, i.e., it will have complete meaning even if it is taken out of its context of a Ghazal.The first sher of a Ghazal is a known as Matla and Makhta is the last sher which contains the pen name of the poet.The most important Ghazal Writer, I believe is Mirza Ghalib. Here is two of his couplets which I translated into English:Come yesterday and today itself you say you’re going,Agreed though not forever, but well, some days more.Its been long that I have entertained my beloved guestHighlighting the meeting with gushing wine goblet.
Here are the first two lines of that Ghazal translated into English:Mahol Bemaza hai tere pyar ke bagairKaise Piye Sharaab koi, Yar ke bagairThere is no fun in the ambience without your lovehow can I drink wine, without a mate?
The word shayari is taken from ‘sher’ which is couplet of a ghazal. Love Shayari is also a form of rendition of shers. The poems taken for Shayari is usually of romantic nature. It uses puns, humorous, and surprising use of words.There are a few things that a western audience have to keep in mind when listening to any of these forms of poetry: